1. The era of One-Party Dominance: First three general elections, nature of Congress dominance at the national level, uneven dominance at the state level, coalitional nature of Congress. Major opposition parties.
2. Nation-Building and Its Problems: Nehru’s approach to nation-building: Legacy of partition: the challenge of ‘refugee’ resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Organization and reorganization of states; Political conflicts over language.
3. Politics of Planned Development: Five-year plans, expansion of state sector, and the rise of new economic interests. Famine and suspension of five-year plans. Green revolution and its political fallouts.
4. India’s External Relations: Nehru’s foreign policy. Sino-Indian war of 1962, Indo-Pak war of 1965 and 1971. India’s nuclear programme and shifting alliances in world politics.
5. Challenge to and Restoration of Congress System: Political succession after Nehru. NonCongressism and electoral upset of 1967, Congress split and reconstitution, Congress’ victory in 1971 elections, politics of ‘garibi hatao’.
6. Crisis of the Constitutional Order: Search for ‘committed’ bureaucracy and judiciary. Navnirman movement in Gujarat and the Bihar movement. Emergency: context, constitutional and extra-constitutional dimensions, resistance to emergency. 1977 elections and the formation of the Janata Party. Rise of civil liberties organizations.
7. Regional Aspirations and Conflicts: Rise of regional parties. Punjab crisis and the anti-Sikh riots of 1984. The Kashmir situation. Challenges and responses in the North East.
8. Rise of New Social Movements: Farmers’ movements, Women’s movement, Environment, and Development-affected people’s movements. Implementation of Mandal Commission report and its aftermath.
9. Democratic Upsurge and Coalition Politics: Participatory upsurge in the 1990s. Rise of the JD and the BJP. The increasing role of regional parties and coalition politics. UF and NDA governments. Elections 2004 and UPA government.
10. Recent Issues and Challenges: Challenge of and responses to globalization: new economic policy and its opposition. Rise of OBCs in North Indian politics. Dalit politics in the electoral and non-electoral arena. Challenge of communalism: Ayodhya dispute, Gujarat riots.